Scientists claim, that they found a molecular killer key, which if activated, destroys cancer cells.
According to the new study, microRNA can be used to send a message to cancer cells to self-destruct, which they cannot ignore. The inclusion of this mechanism in cancer therapy will make it possible to rid the body of tumors, without the need for painful chemotherapy.
The cells in the human body are constantly being created and destroyed. About 300 millions of cells die every minute in our bodies and are replaced by new ones. This is to protect the body against potential damage to aging or diseased cells. The problem is, that cancer cells can survive, защото имат способността да игнорират инструкциите за самоунищожение на имунната система. But that doesn't necessarily mean, that there is no way to transmit this message to cancer cells.
В предишно проучване учени от Северозападния университет describe механизъм, through which every cell in the body can be programmed to destroy. As soon as the inner bodyguards of the cage feel, that the cell has mutated into cancer, те пускат смъртоносния код, за да унищожат мутиралата клетка. Now the same research team announced, that they managed to break through “code”, necessary to initiate this mechanism.
В статията си в списание Nature Communications, the authors report, that instructions for cell death are available as information in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and in microRNA.
The code is included in the major protein-encoding ribonucleic acids (RNA) and in small RNAs, called miRNAs, which scientists believe, that they evolved more than 800 million years in part to protect the body from cancer. Toxic small RNA molecules are also triggered by chemotherapy, reported scientists from Northwestern University.
In particular, they use small interfering (Small interfering – and) RNA, to cause poisoning in cancer cells, process, usually activated by chemotherapy. Before they get to the winning formula, consisting of six nucleotides, present in small RNAs, researchers check 4 096 different combinations of nucleotide bases.
Molecules, used in the study, focus on several genes in cancer cells, initiating the self-destruct sequence for four studied human and mouse cell lines. Because molecules destroy many genes at once, which the cells need, to survive, cancer cannot develop resistance.
“Now, when we know the killer code, we can activate the mechanism, без да се налага да използваме химиотерапия и без да бъркаме в генома. We can use these small RNAs directly, enter them in the cells and activate the key “, обяснява водещият автор Маркъс Питър (Marcus Peter), Professor of Cancer Metabolism at Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University.
The most common cancers (listed in descending order according to the expected new cases in 2018 g.) are breast cancer, lung cancer and bronchitis, prostate cancer, colon and rectal cancer, melanoma of the skin, bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, kidney and kidney pelvic cancer, endometrial cancer, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer and liver cancer.
Изследователите се надяват с помощта на молекулярните “MPs”, идентифицирани в новото проучване, да освободят хората от раковите заболявания, without having to subject them to the disabling side effects of chemotherapy. Many years may pass, before that happens, but promising results suggest, that one day cancer can be treated safely.