What is cancer?, types of cancer

What is cancer?? The body is made up of many different types of cells. Normal, they grow, they divide and after a while die. Sometimes, cells mutate (they change) and begin to grow and divide faster than normal cells. Instead of dying, these damaged cells are “stick together” (skupchvat) with each other and form a tumor (neoplasm).

Tumors are divided into benign and malignant.

Benign tumors are not cancer. They have the following features:

  • in most cases they are not life threatening
  • usually, they can be easily removed and rarely recur
  • cells, building benign tumors, do not spread to surrounding tissues and other parts of the body

Malignant tumors are referred to as cancer (or cancer) and they are characterized by the following:

  • they are a serious disease and can be life-threatening
  • can be removed, but often reappear (recur)
  • cancer tumor cells, they can enter and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also be detached from the primary tumor through the lymphatic or circulatory system, to spread to other parts of the body. This process of spreading and forming new tumors is called “metastasirane”.

Metastasize cells, bear the same signs of abnormal growth, as well as those from the primary tumor. The type of cancer is determined by the location, where the primary malignant process began. for example, if breast cancer metastasizes to the bones, the cancer cells there are the same as those in the breast tumor. The disease is referred to as “metastatic” breast cancer, and not as bone cancer and is treated in a similar way to breast cancer.

What are the types of cancer?

There are many types of cancer, and they all begin with abnormal cell growth. The most common types of cancer in adults are:

  • skin cancer
  • lung cancer
  • colon cancer
  • breast cancer
  • endometrial cancer
  • ovarian cancer
  • prostate cancer

Leukemia and lymphoma are more specific types of cancer. They occur in the blood-forming organs. Malignant cells circulate in the circulatory and lymphatic systems and can also infiltrate various organs of the body and form tumors..

What is the cause of cancer?Cancer cells arise as a result of a change in DNA (deoxy-ribonucleic acid) of healthy cells in the human body.

It's DNA “the molecule of life” – the substance, in which they are coded “instructions” for growth, the development and duration of existence of each cell.

Normal cells turn into cancerous, when exposed to “carcinogens” - chemical, physical or biological factors, which cause cancer. They interact with various DNA structures and cause changes (mutations). Mutations in DNA occur relatively often, but the body is usually able to repair them. If it fails, damaged cells simply die and are replaced by new ones.

This is not the case with malignant changes. The cells carrying the mutation continue to live, they begin to grow and divide chaotically and without control – cancer develops.

Which risk factors are most often associated with cancer?Everything is a risk factor, which increases the likelihood of getting a disease, including cancer. Here are the main factors, associated with this disease:

  1. Life style
  2. Smoking, drinking, junk food and obesity, excessive exposure to sunlight, promiscuous sexual behavior - lifestyle elements, which can lead to various types of cancer. Changing these bad habits can significantly reduce the risk of developing the disease.
  3. Environment – the environment around us may contain harmful substances, which cause mutations in our genes. for example, even if you don't smoke, you may be exposed to the so-called. “passive smoking”. If there are people, who smoke around you or stay in smoky rooms, you swallow smoke, which can cause cancer.
  4. Chemicals and substances such as gasoline and asbestos for example, also associated with the occurrence of malignancies.
  5. Family history -cancer in some families is more common. This follows from the fact, that some altered genes, as well as the predisposition to develop cancer, perhaps inherited. If you have close relatives with this disease, you should perform regular preventive examinations in this regard.
  6. Chronic illnesses – some chronic diseases can lead to cancer.

Source: http://www.puls.bg


We use cookies, to guarantee, that we provide you with the best experience on our website.
If you continue to use this site, we will accept, that you accept privacy policy!